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Nahuatl Language

In 1570 King Philip ll of Spain decreed that Nahuatl should become the official language of the colonies of New Spain in order to facilitate communication between the Spanish and natives of the colonies. This led to the Spanish missionaries teaching Nahuatl to Indians living as far south as Honduras and El Salvador. During the 16th and 17th centuries, Classical Nahuatl was used as a literary language, and a large corpus of texts from that period is in existence today. For a time, the linguistic situation in Mesoamerica remained relatively stable, but in 1696 King Charles II issued a decree banning the use of any language other than Spanish throughout the Spanish Empire. 

Nahuatl Words in use today.

Plants, Fruits and vegetables

Amate (a variety of fig)

Foods and drinks

  • Ocote
  • Otate
  • Paliacate
  • Papalote (Kite)
  • Pepenar
  • Petaca
  • Petate (sleeping mat of woven palm fiber)
  • Peyotea
  • Popote (Straw)
  • Tenamaste
  • Tepetate
  • Tianguis = open air market
  • Tiza
  • Tzompantli (skull banner)

Comecrudo Language

Was spoken on the lower Rio Grande near Reynosa, Tamaulipas, in Mexico.

ENGLISH-COMECRUDO INDEX

We have well over a 1000 words here are a few.

We seek funding tosave our language in a format

that will beeasy to learn.

ache, kayau.

afternoon, etela'm(le). .

agave, kai, pitai'.

alone, nawi's, somi'.

angry, pakwase'l.

ant, kiome't.

antelope, icnako'.

anthill, e'-u, kiome't, yawe't.

arm, lo't mapi'.

Armadillo, mowe'n.

arrow, kuak (cf. reed).

ashes, len, seme'l.

at once, ya.

aunt, ke'm, ken.

ax, apake't(le).

baby, pekio't.

bald, peke'l.

ball a; bala, kemio'p.

basket, pawape'l.

bat, wessi'.

baths, hot; aussoles.

beans, patoli'to.

bear, kla'm, yatau'.

beard, xa'l.

bee, sepiau.

beef, jerlied; aikiet.

beetle, wisne'p.

bell, a; xalma't.

belly, wax.

Church, eka’m

Clear, xi’, payesu’i.

Cloth, meklai.

Cloud, a’x, ape’l, mape’l, yohue’l.

Cochineal, mape’n, pamso’l.

Cockroach, wisen’p.

Cocoanut, axkuapo’.

Coffee, afisiau’.

Cold, pakli’, pasekiau’.

Colt, a; kika’x, poya’k.

Comanche, Selakampo’m.

Comecrudo, esto’k, kai, peya’p.

Commander, kwamlal.

Conjurer, tewalise’l.

Corn, tawelo’.

Corral, paikue’sne.

Cotoname Indians, esto’k, somi’, sela-kampo’m.

Cotton, e’-u, mepe’l.

Coyote, kla’m.

Coyotillo, koyoti’yo.

Cradle, awekna’t(le).

Crane, ko’l.

Crop, lavor.

Crow, pa’l.

Crust of Sugar, pa-uyau’.

Cry, to; sela’-I, ualmai’.

Cup, pamakua’.

Cup, Chocolate; ko-ome’t, epe’t(le), pakuape’t(le).

Dance, to; kuama’k.

Dancer, a; ma’wayo.

Dark; pa’l, patotiau’, yatau

Daughter, ekla’.

Day; a’l, glol, maptama’k.

Dead, kamau’, plau.

Deaf, papua’l.

Death, plau’.

Deer; ewe’,.

Deerskin, ewe’, ehue’m.

Devil, pahuel, yame’l.

Die, to; kamau’, plau, pokue’t.

Docked, papo’l.

Dog, ketuau’, kla’m.

Door, walai’.

Dot, e’-u, yape’l.

Dove, xa’m.

Down, el.

Draw,to; xi’kwap, tap.

Dress, meklai

Drink,to; kam.

Drum, patapta’k, tambo’r.

Dry, pehue’t, ptau.

Dying, pokue’t.

Eagle, xa’m, pa-uta’p.

Ear, ali’.

Ear of Corn, tawelo’.

Earth, kamla’.

East, le’t.

Eel, poska’m.

Egg(Bird’s), yau’.

Eight, xomenank, mata’he, yi’y.

Elbow, pawape’l, mapi’.

Elder Brother, kanosa’, ko’s.

Elder Sister, ken, ko’s.

Evening Star, ketekui’, lesum.

Evergreen, oak, payauya’p.

Ewe, a; kesewuyo’.

Face; ape’l.

Fast, to; ikwalua’k, pasa’m, wa’x.

Fat, pa’k, wewui’.

Father, mawi’s.

Feather, xa’m.

Female, ke’m.

Fight, to; wak.

Fire, klewe’m, len.

Firewood, pamakua’.

First, kuiti’n.

Fish, atui’s, selua’.

Fisher-boat, a’x, pakati’.

Fisherman, pakati’.

Fish-hook, awagat.

Fish-pole, xai, xom.

Five, makue’l.

Flash of Lightning, a; met.

Flat, pame’le, papo’l, peki’s, poska’m.

Flea, nahueli’z.

Flesh, ewe’.

Flint, woyekue’l.

Flood tide, kio.

Flower, awai’, exno’, xai’, pawai’.

Fly, keswahui’.

Foam, a’x, pakwu’, pepo’k.

Fog, milio.

Food, kai, pamakua’ pa’muapl, payawa’p(le).

Forest, kiapai’ne, xai’, somi’, wai’, yawe’t.

Four, nawui’.

Fox, mu’s.

Friend, pakwase’l.

Frighten, to; pewaptai’ne.

Frixolillo(Sp.), patoli’to.

Frog, paka’-u.

Fruit, a’u, pe’-iwa’s.

Full moon, pehopola’m.

Full of, paka’m(le).

Garment, meklai.

Girl, ke’m, kica’x.

Glue, to; walai’.

Goat, kape’l.

God, kio.

Gold, oro, pa-uta’p.

Gourd, kai.

Governor, katawa’n, pakma’t.

Grandson, ta-i.

Gray, yatau’.

Great, pakma’t, poska’m, yawe’t.

Green, yalu’-i.

Grind, to; epiu’, pakuape’l.

Grow, to; kuaska’m

Gun, miop.

Gunpowder, aka, kemio’p.

Hail, to; pamesai’.

Hair, ela’x, emo’l.

Hairless, peke’l.

Hammer, awakui’l, epo’, pakui’.

, papewe’t(le).

Hand, mapi’.

Handle, awagat, mapi’.

Handle, to; klap.

Handsaw, a; apaket(le).

Hat, pakuape’t(le).

Hatchet, see axe.

Hawk, xa’m, pa-uta’p.

Heart, kayase’l.

Heart, in his; met.

Heaven, ape’l.

Heavy, maketiau’.

Hen, xa’m, ulamai’.

Heron, ko’l.

Hog, mo’k.

Hole, e’-u, pawapta’k.

Hollow, alpa’, e’-u.

Honey, pana’l, pekue’l, sepiau’.

Honeycomb, sepiau’.

Horn, yemo’.

Horse, poya’k.

Horsehair, ela’x, poya’k.

Horseman, elpau’.

Horseshoe, ekna’t(la), emi’, meklai, poya’k.

Hot, sowetiau’.

House, wa’k, wama’k.

Indian, esto'k, somna'-u, gna'x, nawaso'l.

Indian, wild; selakampo'm.

inhabitant, elua'x.

injury, xowamte'.

insect, wisne'p.

inside, hak.

intoxicated, afisiau', pamesua'k.

island, a'y, te.

itself, nawi's.

jerked beef, aikiet, tet.

joints (in cane), pawapta'k.

judge, pa-utap.

jump, to; paka'-u.

kernels of corn, pakenha(le).

kettle, ko-ome't.

key, xayapo', yemo'.

kill, to; karnau'.

kiss, to; ahuap, xa'l.

knee, i-apo'.

kneel, to; elkapet(le), elpau'.

knife, kawi, xayepo'.

labor, lavor.

lagoon, ax, pakma't.

lance, the; paya'-u.

land, kamla', somi'.

large, pakma't, poska'm, yawe't.

Match, a; ahane'k(la).

Me, ye'n.

Meat, ewe', kai.

Medicine, kam.

Mescal, afisiau', epie'-u.

Mesquite, ta'n.

Mestizo, pepo'k, pilie'p, yatau'.

Metal, wahue'n.

Metate, apaki'(le).

Meteor, ketekui'.

Mexico, klau'.

Mine, ye'n.

Mission, a; i-en, yawe't.

Moccasins, meklai, po'so, te'-u.

Money, pasinope’t

Monterey, meskam, wama'k.

Month, one; kuiti'n, mes.

Moon, ka'n.

Morning, ma-ute'.

Morning star, ketekui', ma-ute'. mortar, e'-u.

Mosquito, keswahui'.

Moss, pio's.

Mother, ma't, te.

Mountain, wail.

Mouth, xa'l.

Mulatto, pa'l.

Mule, kasrnet.

Mushroom, wai'.

Mustache, xa'l.

Necklace, papola'mla.

Negro, gna'x, yatau'.

Negress, ke'm ' yatau'.

Needle, pelal(le).

Nest, alua'x, xa'm.

Net, man.

Night, glo'l, hexlai'le, patotiau'.

Nine, yina-u.

No, ka'm.

Noise, mio'p.

Noon, all.

North, homble't, le't, pasekiau'.

Norther (blows), emlakta'mi.

Nose, yam.

Oak, xai'.

Oil, tcau'.

Old, akna, gna'x, pat, pilie'p.

One, kuiti'n.

Open, to ; ahatai, apta'k, eko'k(le).


Orphan, pakwesso'm.

Out of, hak.

Outside, moya'k.

Owl, xa'm, pakma't, u-i.

Own, to; kam.

Paint, to; pakahuai'.

Pakawa Indian, pakahuai'.

Panther, xuepe't.

Paper, kiau', xai', pakahuai'.

Parakeet (P), ketuau', xa'm, pa-ulape't.

Path, al, kica'x.

Pecan, glepo'.

Peccary, mo'k.

Peck, to; palakua'p.

Pelican, xa'm, poska'm, ya'x, yatau'.

Pepper, red; ta-u'.

Perform,, to; ite'.

Peyote, ko'p.

Peyote, dance of the; kai.

Pigeon, xa'm, pepo'k.

Pillow, pakwetai'le.

Pinch, to; klap.

Pinto Indian, a; pakahuai'.

Pipe, a'x, kahue'l.

Pistol, kemio'p, pu's.

Place, to; ahua'p.

Plate, ayenwa'p(la), kai, plato.

Playing card, pehau.

Pointer (a dog), kla'm, pamo'l.

Poison, a; kua'k, pa-uple, pekatai', sel.

Pool, a; a'x, kon.

Poor, nahakme'm.

Potato, pakma't.

Power, ahua'p.

Pregnant, paki's.

Prepare, to; nelpo'k, yap.

Pretty, pese'x, poxla'p.

Prick, to; amkiet, kamau', paya'-u.

Prickly pear, mape'n.

Priest, ewaye'hhi.

Purple, panate’l.

Quick, sap, ya.

Rabbit, kiexue'n.

Raccoon, pakwa'-ule.

Rafter, warna'k, pahuai'(1).

Railroad, kie', pakwatata'p(le).

Rain, a’x, mape'l.

Rainbow, a'l, maiko'k.

Rattle, axkuapo', paktel, pase'l.

Rattlesnake, panate’l, pase'l, wemu'k.

Raven, xa'm, pal.

Red, kuis, pamso'l.

Reed, kua'k (cf. arrow).

Rich, nahakme'm.

Rider, elpau'.

Rifle, miop.

Right, pepeki'sen.

Rio Grande, the; atmahau’, pakma't.

Road, a'l.

Robe, a woman's; meklai.

Rock, pakmat, woyekue'l.

Roof, pahuai'(l),wama'k.

Rose, xai', pawai'.

Rough, wa-uta'p.

Round, pawape'l.

Row a; yap.

Row, to; wen.

Rubbing stone, apaki'(le).

Run, to; kie'.

Sack, a; meklai.

Saddle, patata'm(le).

Salt, sepe'n..

Saltillo, somi', wama'k.

Scissors, we.

Scorpion, eska'n.

Scraper, a; kawi.

Scratch, to; pahalai'o(la.)

Sea, atanawai'.

Seahorse (a fish called in Mexican matalote), gna'x.

Seamstress, pelai'(le)

Seat, patatam(le).

Seed (?), heke'l.

Serape, a; meklai, mepe'l.

Set, to; (as the sun);eme't.

Shadow, patotiau'.

Shark, pakna'x, wemu'k.

Sharp, ika'm.

Shave, to; kawi, wen.

She, nani'.

Shirt, meklai.

Shoes, meklai.

Shoot the bow, to; paya'-u.

Shooting star, ketekui'.

Shore, kon.

Short, pu's.

Shrub, a;glake'n.

Sick, kayau'.

Side (of mountain), iyun'si.

Sierra, yahue'n.

Silent, ekna, mekaygna, somi'.

Silver, emtai'.

Sing, to; kuampak.

Singer, a; kuampak, ma'wayo.

Sink down, to; elpau'.

Sister, ken, ko's.

Sit, to; elpau'.

Six, panawuyi.

Skiff, pakwatatap.

Skin, ehoe'm, emo'l.

Skip, to; pa-iwe'-uni.

Sky, ape'l.

Smear, to; pekatai'.

Small, to; exno, weko,'payo.

Smoke, kaye'm.

Smoke, to; ko'm.

Snake, wemu’k.

Snarl, to; pamawau'.

Sniff, to; exno’.

Snow, kem.

Snuff-box, ahatai.

Soil, kamla'.

Soldier, pakwa'l.

Sole of foot, wami'.

Son (said by father), ko't. .

Sorry, ekohua'k.

Soul, met.

South, kiau'.

Spaniard, pepo'k, u-i.

Sparrow-hawk, xa'm, pa-uta’p.

Speak, to; ekna. .

Spider, wisne’p.

Spit to; pakokla'p.

Spot, panate'l.

Sprinkle, to; ehapbb.

Squall, wam.

Squint, to; teme't.

Squirrel, isma'-u

Stamp, to; malai’.

Star, ketekui’.

Star, falling; emi’, ketekui’.

Starch, e’-u.

Steal, to; welkua’m.

Steam, klewe'm, ya-una'k.

Steamboat, atmahau', kie'.

Steam engine, exno’.

Stick, xai', sepiauya’m.

Sting, to; kamau’.

Stink to; pamala’p.

Stockings, xi, media (Spanish word), wam.

Stomach, am, kiemu’.

Stone, woyekue’l.

Stop (rain), to; elpa.

Straighten, to; weme’n.

Strap, to; guapi’.

Straw, gloxkue’l, pawe’le, sel.

Sturgeon, gla’m.

Sugar, wiau’.

Sugarcane, kua’k, wiau’.

Summer, mahape'l.

Sun, a’l.

Swallow, xa'm, petawil.

Sweat baths, aussoles. Sweet, pakomlayau’, wiau’.

Swim, to; akike’te.

Swordfish(P), selau’.

Tall, pakna’x, paptewe’t.

Tamaulipas, mesme’t(?).

Tarantula, paka-u.

Tasajito(a shrub), kua’s.

Tattoo, to; pakahuai’.

Tejon Indian, a; esto’k, Tejo’n.

Temple, to; u-i.

Temple bone, the; u-i.

Ten, dieina’wi, xomenank, yi’y.

Texan, a; somi’.

Thief, a; welkua'm.

Think, to; max, ye.

Three, yi’y.

Thumb, amha’n(le).

Thunder, ma’k.

Thunder, to; klewe’m, pakuatiwak., mak.

Tick, ko’k.

Tied, yena’mle.

Tiger, xuepe’t.

Toad, axklepe’-u.

Tobacco, a’x.

Today, a’l, maptamak.

Toes, emi’, mapi’.

Tomcat, kiwete’t, mu’s, pakma’t.

Tomorrow, maptama’k, ma-ute’.

Tongue, expe’n.

Tooth, i’.

Tornado, wam, po(t).

Tortilla, pamaplai’le.

Tortoise, gla’.

Touch, klap.

Town, ama’t, wama’k, yawe’t.

Track, hue’ya.

Tree, xai’.

Trunk of a tree, papo’l.

Tuna, fruit of; a’u.

Turkey, esmkue’t.

Turtle, glai’, peklai.

Twins, kekla’xpapau, kuiti’n.

Twist, to; teme’t.

Two, kuiti’n.

Unable, pessua’.

Uncle, kia’m.

Uncovered, peke’l.

Under, e’-u, kama’t.

Understand, to; hala.

Valiant, patua’m, wak.

Venision, ewe’.

Village, ama’t, wama’k.

Violet, panate’l.

Violin, kuampak.

Walk,to; kiapai’ni, kie’, kio, yenhel.

Walnut, glepo’.

Wander, to; kiapai’ni..

Warm, sowetiau’.

Warrior, patua’m.

Water, a’x

White man, a; pepo’k.

Wife, ke’m.

Wild, papi’, payauya’p, somi’.

Wildcat, xuepe’t.

Win, to; pekota’m(le).

Wind, po(t).

Winter, pasekiau’.

Wipe, to; pella’p(le).

Wish, to; mek.

Without, ka’m, pessua’, somi’.

Wizard, tewalise.

Wolf, kla’m, payauya’p, payawiau’.

Woman, ke’m (e short).

Wood, xai’.

Wooden, xai’.

Woodpecker, xai’, xa’m, te.

Wool, emo’l, wuya’.

Worm, selau’.

Yellow, yalu-i’.

Yes!, ya-uno’.

Yesterday, a’l, lesum, ma-ute, somi’.

Yoke, apakam(le).

Younger sister, ken, ko’s.

Your, emna’.

Yucca, e’-u.